Land-Use and Land-Cover Classification Using a Human Group-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with an LSTM Classifier on Hybrid Pre-Processing Remote-Sensing Images
Land-use and land-cover (LULC) classification using remote sensing imagery plays a vital role in many environment modeling and land-use inventories. In this study, a hybrid feature optimization algorithm along with a deep learning classifier is proposed to improve the performance of LULC classification, helping to predict wildlife habitat, deteriorating environmental quality, haphazard elements, etc. LULC classification is assessed using Sat 4, Sat 6 and Eurosat datasets. After the selection of
... er the selection of remote-sensing images, normalization and histogram equalization methods are used to improve the quality of the images. Then, a hybrid optimization is accomplished by using the local Gabor binary pattern histogram sequence (LGBPHS), the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) and Haralick texture features, for the feature extraction from the selected images. The benefits of this hybrid optimization are a high discriminative power and invariance to color and grayscale images. Next, a human group-based particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is applied to select the optimal features, whose benefits are a fast convergence rate and ease of implementation. After selecting the optimal feature values, a long short-term memory (LSTM) network is utilized to classify the LULC classes. Experimental results showed that the human group-based PSO algorithm with a LSTM classifier effectively well differentiates the LULC classes in terms of classification accuracy, recall and precision. A maximum improvement of 6.03% on Sat 4 and 7.17% on Sat 6 in LULC classification is reached when the proposed human group-based PSO with LSTM is compared to individual LSTM, PSO with LSTM, and Human Group Optimization (HGO) with LSTM. Moreover, an improvement of 2.56% in accuracy is achieved, compared to the existing models, GoogleNet, Visual Geometric Group (VGG), AlexNet, ConvNet, when the proposed method is applied.