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This review summarizes new findings related to beneficial effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) on reproductive physiology. Recently many researchers have begun to study the local role of melatonin as an antioxidant. We focused on intra-follicular role of melatonin in the ovary. Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland, is taken up into the follicular fluid from the blood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within the follicles, during the ovulatory process. Melatonindoi:10.1507/endocrj.ej12-0263 pmid:23171705 fatcat:7y5jdzkm5vhelecjgnxosuvusq