A new method for operating a continuous-flow diffusion chamber to investigate immersion freezing: assessment and performance study
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Abstract. Glaciation in mixed-phase clouds predominantly occurs through the immersion-freezing mode where ice-nucleating particles (INPs) immersed within supercooled droplets induce the nucleation of ice. Model representations of this process currently are a large source of uncertainty in simulating cloud radiative properties, so to constrain these estimates, continuous-flow diffusion chamber (CFDC)-style INP devices are commonly used to assess the immersion-freezing efficiencies of INPs. This
... cies of INPs. This study explored a new approach to operating such an ice chamber that provides maximum activation of particles without droplet breakthrough and correction factor ambiguity to obtain high-quality INP measurements in a manner that previously had not been demonstrated to be possible. The conditioning section of the chamber was maintained at −20 ∘C and water relative humidity (RHw) conditions of 113 % to maximize the droplet activation, and the droplets were supercooled with an independently temperature-controlled nucleation section at a steady cooling rate (0.5 ∘C min−1) to induce the freezing of droplets and evaporation of unfrozen droplets. The performance of the modified compact ice chamber (MCIC) was evaluated using four INP species: K-feldspar, illite-NX, Argentinian soil dust, and airborne soil dusts from an arable region that had shown ice nucleation over a wide span of supercooled temperatures. Dry-dispersed and size-selected K-feldspar particles were generated in the laboratory. Illite-NX and soil dust particles were sampled during the second phase of the Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop (FIN-02) campaign, and airborne soil dust particles were sampled from an ambient aerosol inlet. The measured ice nucleation efficiencies of model aerosols that had a surface active site density (ns) metric were higher but mostly agreed within 1 order of magnitude compared to results reported in the literature.