Karst Types in Bulgaria

Dora Angelova
2016 Acta Carsologica  
UDC: 551.44(497. 2) Dora Angelova: Karst types in Bulgaria The karst in Bulgaria occupies an area of 26 170 km 2 or 22.7 % of the territory of the country. The karst water resources are estimated to be 2.3 billion m 3 or 11.6 % of the total water resources of the country. The interest in karst in Bulgaria has become higher during the last years because there are a number of practical problems that have to be solved. Karst in Bulgaria is characterized by great diversity due to the complex
more » ... the complex combination of factors (geological, tectonic, geomorphologic, hydrological and hydrogeological, climatic, etc.) and to the geodynamic development of this part of Europe. This work presents a new zoning of karst in Bulgaria. The following types have been distinguished: plain karst (the Danubian Plain); marine and transformed marine karst into plain and plain-marine karst (Black Sea subaqual and subareal plain); plateau-like karst (the Fore Balkan) and mountainous karst. The karst wetlands and karst phenomena provoked by paleoearthquakes are separately outlined and sample models for the different karst types, genesis, dynamics, lithostructural control, relations, etc. are presented. IzvleËek UDK: 551.44(497.2) Dora Angelova: Tipi krasa v Bolgariji Kras v Bolgariji obsega 26 170 km 2 oziroma 22,7 % celotnega ozemlja. Kraπki vodni viri so ocenjeni na 2,3 milijarde m 3 , kar predstavlja 11,6 % vseh vodnih virov v draeavi. Zanimanje za bolgarski kras se je poveËalo v zadnjih letih zaradi reπevanja vsakdanjih vpraπanj. Za ta kras je znaËilna velika raznolikost zaradi prepletanja razliËnih dejavnikov (geoloπkih, tektonskih, geomorfoloπkih, hidroloπkih in hidrogeoloπkih, klimatskih, itd.) in skladno z geodinamiËnim razvojem tega dela Evrope. PriËujoËe delo predstavlja novo delitev krasa v Bolgariji. Avtorica loËi sledeËe tipe: ravninski kras (Donavska niaeina), morski kras, v ravninskega spremenjeni morski kras in ravninsko-morski kras (Ërnomorska podvodna in kopna ravnina); planotasti kras (Predbalkan) in gorski kras. Posebej obravnava kraπka moËvirja in kraπke pojave, ki so jih povzroËili potresi v geoloπki preteklosti. Kot primer so predstavljeni tudi modeli razliËnih tipov krasa, njihov nastanek, dinamika, vpliv kamninske strukture, medsebojni odnosi, itd. KljuËne besede: tipi krasa, paleo-in neokarst, delitev krasa, Bolgarija.
doi:10.3986/ac.v32i1.360 fatcat:jpfw5z5t2zd37my76deqmkya3m