Phototoxic and modulatory effects of natural products from the skin of Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002)
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
The skin of amphibians possesses a large diversity of biologically active compounds that are associated with the natural defenses of these animals against pathogens. Five different extracts and fractions were obtained from the skin of Rhinella jimi: methanol extract (ME), methanol fractions (MF), chloroform extract of methanol extract (CF), aqueous alkaloid fraction (AAF) and aqueous non-alkaloid fraction (ANAF). All fractions were evaluated with respect to their antibiotic modifying activity
... odifying activity in standard bacterial strains and multiresistant clinical isolates. Antagonism was detected with kanamycin and gentamicin when combined with substances obtained from the skin of R. jimi. Phototoxic activity was observed in the methanol and chlorophorm fractions, as well as the aqueous non-alkaloid fraction. The antagonistic action was apparently associated with the protection afforded by the bacterial populations that inhabit the skin of this amphibian, preventing colonization by pathogenic fungi. The phototoxic activity demonstrated by natural products from the skin of R. jimi showed an interruption of the bacterial growth after UV exposure. This could indicate an antibacterial effect activated by the UV light, opening a path for carrying the attack by pathogenic fungi, causing the disease related with the amphibian decline.