Soil Microbiome Response to Contamination with Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol S
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The choice of the study objective was affected by numerous controversies and concerns around bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS)—analogues of bisphenol A (BPA). The study focused on the determination and comparison of the scale of the BPA, BPF, and BPS impact on the soil microbiome and its enzymatic activity. The following parameters were determined in soil uncontaminated and contaminated with BPA, BPF, and BPS: the count of eleven groups of microorganisms, colony development (CD) index,
... ment (CD) index, microorganism ecophysiological diversity (EP) index, genetic diversity of bacteria and activity of dehydrogenases (Deh), urease (Ure), catalase (Cat), acid phosphatase (Pac), alkaline phosphatase (Pal), arylsulphatase (Aryl) and β-glucosidase (Glu). Bisphenols A, S and F significantly disrupted the soil homeostasis. BPF is regarded as the most toxic, followed by BPS and BPA. BPF and BPS reduced the abundance of Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria and increased that of Actinobacteria. Unique types of bacteria were identified as well as the characteristics of each bisphenol: Lysobacter, Steroidobacter, Variovorax, Mycoplana, for BPA, Caldilinea, Arthrobacter, Cellulosimicrobium and Promicromonospora for BPF and Dactylosporangium Geodermatophilus, Sphingopyxis for BPS. Considering the strength of a negative impact of bisphenols on the soil biochemical activity, they can be arranged as follows: BPS > BPF > BPA. Urease and arylsulphatase proved to be the most susceptible and dehydrogenases the least susceptible to bisphenols pressure, regardless of the study duration.