Effects of Grain Size and Interstitial Solute Content on the Hardness of Ti–N, Ti–O and Ti–C Alloys at Room Temperature

Kenji Okazaki, Hans Conrad
1973 Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals  
Effects of grain size and interstitial solutes, N, O and C, on the hardness of titanium were studied at room temperature. The grain size dependence of the hardness is expressed by the Hall-Petch type equation; H=Ho+KHd-1/2, where the constants Ho and KH vary linearily with the square root of the interstitial concentration. The relative effectiveness of N, O and C on the hardness is 1.4:1.0:0.73. The linear dependence of Ho and KH on the square root of the interstitial concentration could be
more » ... ration could be understood from the fact that good agreement was found between one-third of the hardness and the tensile flow stress at 8% strain and from the observations that the effective strengthening by the various interstitials was the same for the hardness as for the tensile flow stress and that the flow stress was a function of dislocation density.
doi:10.2320/matertrans1960.14.364 fatcat:3alzk5juszbexooxwb7wbwnonm