Lightning Mapping: Techniques, Challenges, and Opportunities

Ammar Alammari, Ammar Ahmed Alkahtani, Mohd Riduan Ahmad, Fuad M. Noman, Mona Riza Mohd Esa, Zen Kawasaki, Sieh Kiong Tiong
2020 IEEE Access  
Despite the significant progress in the understanding of the phenomenon of lightning and the physics behind it, locating and mapping its occurrence remain a challenge. Such localization and mapping of very high frequency (VHF) lightning radiation sources provide a foundation for the subsequent research on predicting lightning, saving lives, and protecting valuable assets. A major technical challenge in attempting to map the sources of lightning is mapping accuracy. The three common
more » ... ic radio frequencybased lightning locating techniques are magnetic direction finder, time of arrival, and interferometer (ITF). Understanding these approaches requires critically reviewing previous attempts. The performance and reliability of each method are evaluated on the basis of the mapping accuracy obtained from lightning data from different sources. In this work, we review various methods for lightning mapping. We study the approaches, describe their techniques, analyze their merits and demerits, classify them, and derive few opportunities for further research. We find that the ITF system is the most effective method and that its performance may be improved further. One approach is to improve how lightning signals are preprocessed and how noise is filtered. Signal processing can also be utilized to improve mapping accuracy by introducing methods such as wavelet transform in place of conventional cross-correlation approaches. INDEX TERMS interferometer, lightning mapping, magnetic direction finder, time of arrival.
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3031810 fatcat:zd3belujezfyblkvremxhtexrm