Biological Notes on Some Flatheaded Barkborers of the Genus Melanophila
Journal of Economic Entomology
Among the tlatheaded bark borers most destructive to forest trees are several species of the genus Melanophila. One species, It-f. drumrnolldi, is of particular interest at the present time because it attacks the sitka spruce which is so necessary in the manufacture of aeroplanes. This and othN species, M. gellWis, M. fulvoguttata and M. californica, attack and kill some of our most important coniferous forest trees. Many sugar pine, yellow pine, douglas spruce; true firs, true spruces.
... ue spruces. hemlocks and larches in American forests have been killed at various times past and are now being killed by these pernicious pests. Even should an attack not kill the tree the injury made often causes checks, "gum spots" or other defects to form in the wood which reduces its value for timber. A curious injury to sugar pine and yellow pine timber in northern California consists of a brown, pitchy, irregular scar several inches in diameter from which radiates small, winding, pitchy lines. The forest pathologists consider the central scars to be caused by a light or diffused stroke of lightning which slightly separates the bark and wood. The radiating lines are the mines of Melanophila larVa! whose mothers were attracted to the scars to lay their eggs. When the attack failed the larvre died and the new growth covered the wound, forming the curious defect. Dr. A. D. Hopkins has published notes on the injuries caused by several species of Melanophila in bulletins 32 and 56 of the West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and 21, 37,48 and 53 of the Bureau of Entomology. The writer has mentioned them in the United