Microbiome and metabolic changes in milk in response to artemisinin supplementation in dairy cows
This study aimed to explore the effects of artemisinin (ART) on the milk microbiome and metabolites of dairy cow. A total of 12 mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows with similar parity, days in milk were randomly divided into 2 groups receiving either a total mixed ration (TMR) as the control group or this TMR and 120 g/d/head ART as the ART group. The milk samples were collected weekly to determine the contents, and end-of-trial (wk 8) milk samples were used to identify microbial species and
... al species and metabolite profiles by 16S rRNA and LC-MS analyses, respectively. We observed that the milk fat content significantly increased by ART treantment (P < 0.05). The bacterial community richness was significantly lower in the ART group (P < 0.05), while the diversity showed no difference (P > 0.05). Compared with its abundance in the CON group, Firmicutes was significantly decreased, whereas Proteobacteria was significantly increased. Furthermore, in the ART group, the relative abundances of the genera Aerococcus, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium_1 and Facklamia were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Metabolomics analysis revealed that ART significantly increasing the concentrations of glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids and flavonoids compared with those in the CON group. An enrichment analysis of the different metabolites showed that ART mainly affected glycerophospholipid metabolism and the pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis pathways. These findings revealed that ART supplementation could affect the milk microbiota and metabolites, that glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids could be potential biomarkers in the milk response to ART feed in dairy cows, and that ART changes substances in milk by maintaining lipid metabolism in the mammary gland.