The criteria for evaluating method and evidence on radiation health effects in epidemiological study: a review

F.M. Yussof, R Umar, H Juahir, A Hassan
2018 Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences  
This paper purpose is to assess whether the distance of base station plays a causal role leading to health problem. This research mostly focuses on participants around telecommunication base stations by assessing their symptoms and level discomfort. It is important to rule out all the criteria and causality from cause and outcome in radiation health effects through epidemiological study. The major causal criteria to follow are criteria of biological plausibility, consistency, temporality and
more » ... temporality and specificity of alternative explanations. True EMR value also should be determined to support the survey collection. Previous studies mostly have been performed were limited to the questionnaire survey and often burdened by the subjectivism must be sufficiently comprehensive to cover the complexity in epidemiological studies. This paper purpose is to assess whether the distance of base station plays a causal role leading to health problem. This research mostly focuses on participants around telecommunication base stations by assessing their symptoms and level of the incident of occurrence of pains and discomfort. It is important to rule out all the criteria and causality from cause and outcome in radiation health effects through epidemiological study. The major causal criteria to follow are cal plausibility, consistency, temporality and specificity of alternative explanations. True EMR value also should be determined to support the survey collection. Previous studies mostly have been performed were limited to the questionnaire survey and n burdened by the subjectivism-related error. The evidence for public health intervention must be sufficiently comprehensive to cover the complexity in epidemiological studies. base stations; electromagnetic radiation (EMR); health effect; questi This paper purpose is to assess whether the distance of base station plays a causal role leading to health problem. This research mostly focuses on participants around telecommunication of the incident of occurrence of pains and discomfort. It is important to rule out all the criteria and causality from cause and outcome in radiation health effects through epidemiological study. The major causal criteria to follow are cal plausibility, consistency, temporality and specificity of alternative explanations. True EMR value also should be determined to support the survey collection. Previous studies mostly have been performed were limited to the questionnaire survey and related error. The evidence for public health intervention must be sufficiently comprehensive to cover the complexity in epidemiological studies. (EMR); health effect; questionnaire. Research Article Special Issue F. M. Yussof et al. J Fundam Appl Sci. 2017, 9(2S), 317-334 318 1. INTRODUCTION Public exposures to Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are not a new fact and are one of the factors that contribute to public concerns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the best method that has the ability to rate and assessing health symptoms and level of the incident of occurrence of pains and discomfort among respondents that exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation can cause negative biological effects on living things, which may vary depending on the dose and the duration of exposure [1-2]. EMR sources came from the smart meter, mobile phones, wireless network, household 50Hz electric and magnetic fields, mobile phone base stations, broadcast towers, cordless phones, distribution power lines and smart meter base station. EMR can be harmful to human body depending upon the radiated power density emitted by EMR and absorbed by human charged particles [3]. Table 1 shows that a wide range of neuropsychiatric effects were produced by exposure to various sources of electromagnetic radiation and methods use in identify health effects in epidemiological studies. The increasing in extensive used and installation of high-voltage overhead power lines and base station hassled to public concerns and give the increase on a scientific debate regarding EMR potential health effects in the community [4]. EMR emitted by mobile phones has caused the increase of public concern about EMR health effects. A headache, tremors, memory changes, depressive symptoms, dizziness symptoms and sleep disturbance were the symptoms and disease that the inhabitants around mobile base stations have developed during exposing to EMR radiation [5]. Exposure assessment in radiation health effect in epidemiological studies is most often done by self-report [6]. One of the factors that can affect the validity of self-report in epidemiological studies was the imprecision of exposure assessment in the studies that likely to occur in case-control studies [7]. They support the beliefs of some studies that the standards fail to ensure sufficient protection to the general population [8]. However, many of those papers were burden with errors resulting from questionnaire format, selection of study group and insufficiently precise assessment of EMF exposure. Besides, other EMR sources were often neglected [9]. In some of the studies done, the results are not always coherent where health problems arise at a shorter distance from the F. M. Yussof et al. J Fundam Appl Sci. 2017, 9(2S), 317-334 319 base station [10] while measured EMR intensity did not correlate with the frequency of the complaints [11]. Based on [12] , the most complaints in Australian regarding radiation health effects were headaches followed by heart arrhythmia, nausea, poor concentration, anxiety, insomnia, lethargy, dizziness, burning sensation and disturbed sleep [12] . Similar list of common neuropsychiatric symptoms was found in electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) which were poor short term memory, lack of concentration, body pain, sleep disturbance, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, eye problems, chronic fatigue, tremors, difficulty in speaking, tingling sensation in hands or feets, difficulty writing, difficulty walking and migraine [13] . These types of symptom commonly found when people exposed to EMR for a specific duration of time. F. M. Yussof et al.
doi:10.4314/jfas.v9i2s.22 fatcat:anfzwkiet5enjge5lorfzhrvhy