Cross-cultural Communication as a Way of Achievement of Cross-cultural Communicative Competence
In this article authors made an attempt to consider a question of cross-cultural communication as a way of achievement of cross-cultural communicative competence. In the process of Kazakhstan entry into the world community in several plans at once -economic, social and cultural -the need for the highly qualified specialists who know foreign language at the productive level, i.e. capable to conduct communication in foreign language and who have linguocultural knowledge increases. For achievement
... es. For achievement of this purpose it is necessary to consider features of students' training which are determined by the needs of society for the improvement of their education quality, and dynamism of social phenomena demands from the future specialists constant increment of knowledge. . intellectual, spiritual and social needs, than in the world of things and subjects. The huge share of information comes to us through the word, and the success of the person in society depends on how well he masters the word, and not so much in respect of the culture of speech, as in ability to get into secrets of the language. Therefore communication and interaction are the most important part of human life, so, and part of culture. Emphasizing their importance, many researchers equate culture to interaction (communication). The leading American psychologist, the author of a number of works on crosscultural communication E.Hall claimed that culture and communication are identical concepts. Basing on it, many western scientists figuratively imagine the culture in the form of iceberg in the basis of which, cultural values and norms lie, and top is the behavior of the person which is based on them and shown first of all in communication with other people . Materials and methods A.A.Leontyev, the famous Russian psychologist and linguist, pointed out in his works that for activity of communication existence of the need for communication changing into the reason is obligatory. The communicative purpose of dialogue is some desirable result for the achievement of which these or those actions from the initiator of the communication (speaker) are taken. The most widespread way of successful communication achievement, i.e. the communicative purpose, according to A.A.Leontyev, is the way through meanings. "We select the words and phrases and we organize them in the statements at various levels so that in the process of perception of the speech by the recipient -in more or less mediated way -desirable shift in its semantic field was carried out" . And here first of all, there is a problem of meaning and sense on which the result of communication considerably depends -whether it will be successful or not. Discussion of results Cross-cultural communication has own regularities which radically influence interaction of subjects of such communication. For the implementation of productive cross-cultural communication, the language personality has to possess cross-cultural competence. Cross-cultural competence is an ability which allows the language personality to go beyond the own culture and to gain qualities of a mediator of cultures, without losing own cultural identity. In the process of cross-cultural communication a peculiar code -the foreign language -is uniform for interlocutors, but thus the systems of language meanings and speech forms are various as they are defined by cultural accessory of each of interlocutors. Cross-cultural communication is a communication of the language personalities belonging to various linguocultural communities. Thus, it becomes clear that for successful communication with carriers of other languages it is necessary to master not only a verbal code (foreign language), but also extra code, background knowledge. Therefore, the communicative failures interfering to communication can be caused not only by ignorance (or insufficient knowledge) of a code (language), but also by the absence of extra code knowledge. So the knowledge of cultural features can positively influence the development of cross-cultural relations, helping to reduce the frequency of communicative failures . Now the problem of cross-cultural communication is in the center of attention of pedagogical science. For the future experts, for graduates of educational institutions the formation of ability and skills of communication in the foreign-language social environment is significant. Profound knowledge of basic lines of other cultures gives the necessary understanding by means of which it is possible to approach communication with representatives of other cultures more intelligently. Cross-cultural communication is considered in works of such scientists, as A.I.Kravchenko, S.G.Ter-Minasov, N.G.Bagdasaryan, V.I.Maximova and others [5, 6, 7, 8] . Today it becomes more and more obvious that the mankind develops on the way of interrelation and interdependence expansion of various countries, people and their cultures. Cultural features of different people make the question of cultural identity and cultural distinctions more actual. The cultural diversity of modern mankind increases and the people who comprise it find more and more resources to keep and develop their cultural image.