Motor Imagery Classification via Kernel-Based Domain Adaptation on an SPD Manifold
Recording the calibration data of a brain–computer interface is a laborious process and is an unpleasant experience for the subjects. Domain adaptation is an effective technology to remedy the shortage of target data by leveraging rich labeled data from the sources. However, most prior methods have needed to extract the features of the EEG signal first, which triggers another challenge in BCI classification, due to small sample sets or a lack of labels for the target. Methods: In this paper, we
... propose a novel domain adaptation framework, referred to as kernel-based Riemannian manifold domain adaptation (KMDA). KMDA circumvents the tedious feature extraction process by analyzing the covariance matrices of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Covariance matrices define a symmetric positive definite space (SPD) that can be described by Riemannian metrics. In KMDA, the covariance matrices are aligned in the Riemannian manifold, and then are mapped to a high dimensional space by a log-Euclidean metric Gaussian kernel, where subspace learning is performed by minimizing the conditional distribution distance between the sources and the target while preserving the target discriminative information. We also present an approach to convert the EEG trials into 2D frames (E-frames) to further lower the dimension of covariance descriptors. Results: Experiments on three EEG datasets demonstrated that KMDA outperforms several state-of-the-art domain adaptation methods in classification accuracy, with an average Kappa of 0.56 for BCI competition IV dataset IIa, 0.75 for BCI competition IV dataset IIIa, and an average accuracy of 81.56% for BCI competition III dataset IVa. Additionally, the overall accuracy was further improved by 2.86% with the E-frames. KMDA showed potential in addressing subject dependence and shortening the calibration time of motor imagery-based brain–computer interfaces.