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Case-control association studies are widely used in the search for genetic variants that contribute to human diseases. It has long been known that such studies may suffer from high rates of false positives if there is unrecognized population structure. It is perhaps less widely appreciated that so-called "cryptic relatedness" (i.e., kinship among the cases or controls that is not known to the investigator) might also potentially inflate the false positive rate. Until now there has been littledoi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0010032.eor fatcat:z6zjr27i7nh7lkrwtapzwai2h4