The Concentrations, Formations, Relationships and Modeling of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium (SNA) Aerosols over China
Aerosol and Air Quality Research
Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) are the dominant composition of secondary aerosols in the atmosphere and have a significant impact on public health, atmospheric chemistry process and climate. In this study, to evaluate SNA pollution in China, a first nationwide investigation derived from almost all published data in the field measurement before 2012 was carried out. The results show that SNA levels in China are about 3-5 times higher than those in USA and Europe. SNA account for 34.2 ±
... unt for 34.2 ± 10.9% in PM 2.5 and 28.2 ± 8.5% in PM 10 . The highest SNA concentrations occur in urban areas of northern China. SNA all have peaks in winter, but the nadirs are in spring for sulfate and ammonium and in summer for nitrate. SOR (sulfur oxidation ratio) and NOR (nitrogen oxidation ratio) values show that the formations of sulfate and nitrate are distinct in different regions and seasons. The low average NO 3 -/SO 4 2ratio (0.43 ± 0.26) indicates that the stationary emissions from coal combustion remain the main sources. There is a good relationship between (2[SO 4 2-] + [NO 3 -]) and [NH 4 + ] with near 1 slope, signifying that (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and NH 4 NO 3 are the predominant forms which SNA exist in particles in China. Based on the comprehensive observational data in China, the simulation for SNA aerosols by GISS in CMIP5 were evaluated. (Bing Chen) Cao et al., Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 17: 84-97, 2017 85 and the results were evaluated based on the observations, which provides an insight into differentiating the observation and model simulation and is helpful in the evaluation of SNA's radiative forcing in China.