Evaluation of Herbicide-Resistance Status on Populations of Littleseed Canarygrass (Phalaris Minor Retz.) from Southern Greece and Suggestions for their Effective Control
Journal of Plant Protection Research
In 2010, a survey was conducted in the wheat fields of a typical cereal-producing region of Greece to establish the frequency and distribution of herbicide-resistant littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Retz.). In total, 73 canarygrass accessions were collected and screened in a field experiment with several herbicides commonly used to control this weed. Most of the weed populations were classed as resistant (or developing resistance) to the acetyl-CoA varboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting
... inhibiting herbicide diclofop, while resistance to clodinafop was markedly lower. The results of the pot experiments showed that some of the canary populations were found to have a very high level of diclofop resistance (resistance index up to 12.4), while cross resistance with other herbicides was also common. The levels of resistance and cross resistance patterns among populations varied along with the different amounts and times of selection pressure. Such variation indicated either more than one mechanism of resistance or different resistance mutations in these weed populations. The population which had the highest diclofop resistance level, showed resistance to all aryloxyphenoxypropinate (APP) herbicides applied and non-ACCase inhibitors. Alternative ACCase-inhibiting herbicides, such as pinoxaden remain effective on the majority of the tested canarygrass populations, while the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron could also provide some solutions. Consequently, there is an opportunity to effectively control canarygrass by selecting from a wide range of herbicides. It is the integration of agronomic practices with herbicide application, which helps in effective management of P. minor and particularly its resistant populations.