Extracting real-crack properties from nonlinear elastic behavior of rocks: abundance of cracks with dominating normal compliance and rocks with negative Poisson's ratio
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics Discussions
Results of examination of experimental data on nonlinear elasticity of rocks using experimental pressure-dependences of P- and S-wave velocities from various literature sources are presented. Overall, over 90 rock samples are considered. Interpretation of the data is performed using an effective-medium description in which cracks are considered as compliant defects (cracks) with independent shear and normal compliances without specifying a particular crack model with an <i>a priori</i> given
... priori</i> given ratio of the compliances. Comparison with the experimental data indicated abundance of cracks (~&thinsp;80&thinsp;%) with the normal-to-shear compliance ratios significantly exceeding the values typical of conventionally used crack models (such as penny-shape cuts or thin ellipsoidal cracks). Correspondingly, rocks with such cracks demonstrate strongly decreased Poisson's ratio including a significant portion of rocks (~&thinsp;45&thinsp;%) exhibiting negative Poisson's ratios at lower pressures, for which the concentration of not yet closed cracks is maximal. The obtained results indicate the necessity of further development of crack models to account the revealed numerous examples of cracks with strong domination of normal compliance. Discovering such a significant number of naturally auxetic rocks is in contrast with the conventional viewpoint that occurrence of negative Poisson's ratio is an exotic fact that is mostly associated with specially engineered structures.