Physiographic Relations of Serpentine, with Special Reference to the Serpentine Stock of Staten Island, N.Y
The Journal of geology
The serpentine highland of Staten Island is one of the most anomalous physiographic features of the Cretaceous peneplain of the Atlantic seaboard. This ancient and widespread base-level slopes southeastward and seaward from the highlands of Southern New York and Northern New Jersey; and from the latter district it has been designated, locally, the Schooley Plain. In its approach to the coast it is most continuously and perfectly preserved in the long, straight crest of the Palisade trap ridge.
... lisade trap ridge. This approach is, in fact, unbroken to Kill Van Kull; and the peneplain passes below sea-level in the northwestern quarter of Staten Island. The normal seaward gradient of the peneplain, in the vicinity of the coast, as proved by numerous deep borings, ranges from 75 to 100o feet per mile; and nowhere else is it so perfect and so perfectly preserved as where it is still covered and protected by the Cretaceous sediments beneath which it was progressively buried as it slowly sank below sea-level, and in so sinking received its finishing touches in the addition of marine planation to terrestrial peneplanation.