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We describe vocalizations of Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandrl] recorded during agonistic encounters at feeders. Calls are composed of one to five different note-types that comprise a recombinatorial system exhibiting syntax. A Markov analysis revealed non-random ordering of note-types. The distribution of call-types (unique combinations of notes) illustrates openness; the number of call-types increases as more calls are sampled. Constraints on call length occur that are relateddoi:10.2307/1369568 fatcat:txuyh6a7sfbuzpa7zdrkmy4pmy