Closure of the ductus arteriosus of indigenous South African goats at high altitude
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
The closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) of 31 indigenous South African goats, whose ages ranged from 30 days prenatal to 60 days postnatal, were studied at an altitude of 1,514 m above sea level by vascular injection as well as histologically and ultrastructurally. The vascular injection results showed that functional occlusion started from the pulmonary end of the DA in kids 6 days old and progressed to the aortic end in kids 8 days old. Histologically, anatomical obliteration was observed
... tion was observed in kids from 35 days of age. The functional closure was preceded by enlargement of the subendothelial region, progressive intimal thickening, presence of subendothelial vacuolization and endothelial detachment. There was radial orientation of the subintimal smooth muscle cells and subsequent migration towards the intima. The inner tunica media contained mast cells and areas of cytolysis. Following functional closure, the subendothelial region showed migrating subintimal smooth muscle cells with extensive cytoplasmic processes and, ultrastructurally a fragmented internal elastic lamina. In 15-day-old kids there were prominent, progressively enlarged cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and numerous free, dispersed ribosomes. In kids 19 and 25 days old, there was, additionally, rarefaction of the cell cytoplasm and appearance of intracellular myofibrils and extra cellular collagen in the surrounding amorphous matrix, which culminated in the complete anatomical closure of the DA in 35-day-old kids.