Metallic Iron and Nickel in Cretaceous and Cenozoic Sediments: The Results of Thermomagnetic Analysis
Journal of Environmental Protection
With the aid of thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) up to 800ºС the composition and distribution of particles of native iron and Fe-Ni alloy was studied in 15 sections, Gams (Austria), Verhorechie and Selbuhra (Crimea), Kvirinaki and Tetritskaro (Georgia), Aimaki, Bass, Dzhengutaj, Madzhalis and Gergebil (North Caucasus, Russia), Klyuchi and Teplovka (Volga Region, Russia), Koshak (Kazakhstan), Kara-Kala and Khalats (Turkmenistan). The age of sediments varies from Miocene to Early Cretaceous. Iron
... Cretaceous. Iron particles are present at 521samples out of 921studied. Their percentage varies from 10 -5 % to 0.05%. The distribution consists of two groups: 1) "zero" group (iron is not found by TMA); 2) group of logarithmic normal distribution with a differing modes. The global enrichment by iron particles in synchronous deposits of Miocene, Maastrichtian-Danian, Santonian and Cenomanian was discovered. With respect to nickel content, the iron particles fall into two groups: 1) nearly pure iron without nickel; and 2) iron with nickel content up to 20%, with modal value of 5%. The source of iron particles is the cosmic dust. Particles of pure nickel and the alloy containing more of 20% of nickel are very rare. Possibly, such particles are related mainly with impact events. A peak of elevated iron content with nearly constant nickel of 5-6% was found in almost all studied sections. It is a global effect which is not dependent of place and time of deposition of iron particles.