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Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) were conducted to evaluate the replacement of sand with coal bottom ash (CBA) in concrete. CBA is a byproduct of coal-fueled electricity production. Sand was replaced with CBA at proportions of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 wt.%, and the resultant concretes were denoted as CBA0, CBA25, CBA50, CBA75, and CBA100, respectively. Two concrete mixture design methods (that resulted in different component qualities of concrete mixtures) were used: (i) Mixture with a fixed slumpdoi:10.3390/app9173620 fatcat:46s6axysgja3jjg4w57hquwtvm