Prevalence and risk factors associated with human cystic echinococcosis in rural areas, Mongolia
Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic, complex and neglected zoonotic disease with considerable socio-economic impact on the affected population. Even though Mongolia is included in the list of high cystic echinococcosis risk countries, there has been very limited research and evidence on the prevalence or prevention of cystic echinococcosis. This field-based cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis and its potential risk factors in Mongolia was conducted from
... ril 2016 to March 2018. A total of 1,993 people were examined by ultrasound in five provinces of Mongolia. All cystic echinococcosis positive cases were classified according to the WHO-IWGE expert recommendations. The logistic regression model was used to detect the association between the presence of echinococcus infection and each potential risk factor. This was the first community survey based on ultrasound screening in Mongolia. We found 98 cystic echinococcosis cases (prevalence = 4.9%), including 85 abdominal ultrasound cystic echinococcosis positive cases and 13 abdominal ultrasound cystic echinococcosis negative cases (surgically treated cystic echinococcosis cases 11, and 2 confirmed cases of lung cystic echinococcosis by chestcomputed tomography in hospital of Ulaanbaatar). The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis varied greatly among different provinces, ranging from 2.0% to 13.1%. Children, elderly people and those with lower education had higher chances of getting cystic echinococcosis. Rather than dog ownership itself, daily practice for cleaning dog feces was associated with increased odds of cystic echinococcosis. The results of the present study show very high endemicity of cystic echinococcosis in Umnugovi province. Evaluation of potential risk factors associated with cystic echinococcosisshow high significance for following factors: demographics (age), social condition (education level) and hygiene practices (cleaning dog feces and use of gloves). Children under 18 and elderly people are considered as the most risk age groups in Mongolia.