GEOGRAFISK CENTRALINSTITUT ved Københavns Universitet. En oversigt

SOFUS CHRISTIANSEN
1983 Danish journal of geography  
J. (2019). Effects of exercise on cognitive performance in children and adolescents with ADHD: Potential mechanisms and evidencebased recommendations. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(6), [841]. https://doi.Abstract: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex symptomatology, and core symptoms as well as functional impairment often persist into adulthood. Recent investigations estimate the worldwide prevalence of ADHD in children and
more » ... dren and adolescents to be~7%, which is a substantial increase compared to a decade ago. Conventional treatment most often includes pharmacotherapy with central nervous stimulants, but the number of non-responders and adverse effects call for treatment alternatives. Exercise has been suggested as a safe and low-cost adjunctive therapy for ADHD and is reported to be accompanied by positive effects on several aspects of cognitive functions in the general child population. Here we review existing evidence that exercise affects cognitive functions in children with and without ADHD and present likely neurophysiological mechanisms of action. We find well-described associations between physical activity and ADHD, as well as causal evidence in the form of small to moderate beneficial effects following acute aerobic exercise on executive functions in children with ADHD. Despite large heterogeneity, meta-analyses find small positive effects of exercise in population-based control (PBC) children, and our extracted effect sizes from long-term interventions suggest consistent positive effects in children and adolescents with ADHD. Paucity of studies probing the effect of different exercise parameters impedes finite conclusions in this regard. Large-scale clinical trials with appropriately timed exercise are needed. In summary, the existing preliminary evidence suggests that exercise can improve cognitive performance intimately linked to ADHD presentations in children with and without an ADHD diagnosis. Based on the findings from both PBC and ADHD children, we cautiously provide recommendations for parameters of exercise. Preface ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity diagnosed in children before the age of 12 [1] . Worldwide prevalence of ADHD in children and adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10% [2-4] and recent surveys estimate that 57% of diagnosed cases persist into adulthood [5] , with well-documented detrimental impact on social and academic skills [6] . The gravity of this diagnosis is underlined by the decreased life expectancy [7], comorbidity with other psychiatric diagnoses [8] and substance abuse [9], along with reduced quality of life for the affected children and their families [10] . Present treatment approaches most often
doi:10.1080/00167223.1983.10649172 fatcat:dag62wf5bjehnbwwxt5d55jqk4