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diopathic disease of the trachea and major bronchi characterized by multiple submucosal osteocartilaginous nodules. The nodules may be either focal or diffuse, and typically spare the membranous wall of the airways. Symptoms are non-specific, and include dry cough, dyspnea, recurrent respiratory infections and occasionally hemoptysis. TPO is rarely considered as a diagnosis in part due to lack of awareness among clinicians. The diagnosis can be based on a typical bronchoscopic appearance anddoi:10.4081/monaldi.2008.398 pmid:18837419 fatcat:qxdrcbrya5gsnbxltpmek5ckhu