Detection of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Buffaloes Naturally Infected with Sarcocystosis with Risk Factor Assessment
Sarcocystosis is a silent, parasitic disease which affects various animal species and causes significant economic losses. It is caused by a number of different intracellular Sarcocystis spp. This study was aimed to detect the host humoral and cellular immune response due to natural infection. Adding to the determination of the infection rate in Monufia Governorate, Egypt. A total number of 127 Egyptian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis); 30 males and 97 females between 2-11 years of age were examined
... age were examined during 2018. An infection rate of 74% (94/127) was detected by macroscopic examination. The old age females were found to be at a high risk of 90.7% (88/97) in comparison with the young males 20% (6/30). Immunologically, the cellular and humoral immune response was determined using ELISA. A marked down-regulation of the proinflammatory Th-1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory Th-2 cytokine (IL-5) adding to a high level of IgG and IgE were detected in the infected animals compared to the non infected ones. The local cellular immune response in the infected tissues was characterized by an accumulation of mixed inflammatory cells, granuloma formation, eosinophilic infiltration, muscular edema, and necrotic degeneration. In conclusion, the Sarcocystis infection rate in the naturally infected buffaloes in Monufia Governorate was high. This is the first study to provide a fundamental insight into the immune profile in buffaloes infected with Sarcocystis spp. So, it will provide valuable insights to develop novel effective vaccines in future studies. Moreover, sensitive and specific tools should be established for the accurate diagnosis of this disease in the different Egyptian governorates through well-structured serological surveys.