Thermal Transformation and Characterization of Synthetic Al-Substituted Maghemites (γ-Fe2-xAlxO3)
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Burning is a common practice in tropical areas and related changes in mineralogy might affect the chemical and physical behavior of soils. Maghemite is a common iron oxide in soils formed from basic rocks in tropical regions. This mineral and hematite are the main pigments in these soils and exhibit high magnetization stemming from the precursor magnetite formed during the weathering process of primary minerals. The objective of the present study was to analyze changes in color, magnetic
... or, magnetic suceptibility values, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, and available Fe and Al contents extracted with 1 mol L -1 KCl during the process of thermal transformation of synthetic Al-maghemites into Al-hematites. Synthetic substituted maghemites with different degrees of Al-substitution (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.9, 3.8, 5.6, 6.7, 10.0, 12.0, and 17.1 mol% Al) were subjected to a temperature of 500 ± 10 °C for 0, 5, 10, 16, 64, 128, 192, 360, 720, 2160, 3600, 5040 and 6480 min. The color of the samples was analyzed by a Munsell system in a colorimeter. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ LF ) was measured at low-frequency. Available Fe and Al contents were estimated by a 1 mol L -1 KCl solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra were obtained through use of a Bruker Vertex 70X FTIR spectrophotometer at a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1 . Contents of Fe and Al extracted by 1 mol L -1 KCl in Al-hematites were not detected. All samples analyzed exhibited YR hue. Hue proportion decreased with increased heating time, and color changed from brown to red. The increase in isomorphic substitution (IS) led to increased hue values from maghemite to hematite, and the latter then became yellower. The χ LF values decreased with an increase in heating time, indicating transformation from a ferrimagnetic phase (maghemite) to an antiferrimagnetic phase (hematite). With increasing IS, the maghemite χ LF values decreased. Bands of the initial members (time 0) in the FTIR spectra were indexed as maghemites. The end members after completion of the heat treatment were identified as hematites. The IS of Fe by Al in maghemite influenced the thermal transformation to hematite, as well as the color and χ LF of the minerals. The χ LF proved to be very efficient in detecting maghemites remaining after thermal processing. Fe and/or Al were not ejected from the hematite crystalline structure after heat treatment.