COVID-19: A Conundrum to Decipher
OBJECTIVE: Recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), another member of coronavirus family is an ongoing worldwide life-threatening crisis. The early diagnosis and management of the disease remains a major challenge. In this review, we aim to summarize the updated epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad search of the literature was
... iterature was performed in “PubMed” “Medline” “Web of knowledge”, and “Google Scholar” World Health Organization-WHO” using the key words “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus”, “SARS”, “SARS-CoV-2” “Epidemiology” “Transmission” “Pathogenesis” “Clinical Characteristics”. We reviewed and documented the information attained from literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical appearances of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The global cases of COVID-19 till 30th March 2020 have rose more than 700,000 and morbidity has gone more than 37,000. The infection rate for COVID-19 has been predicted to be higher than the previous outbreaks of same family members, that includes the SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The main clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic stages to severe lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia. Most of the patients also presented with fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, myalgia and breathlessness. High risk includes elderly people and patients with weak immune system or suffering from chronic medical condition like hypertension, diabetes, cancer, respiratory illness and cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, affecting almost each and every country on globe. As there is still growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies, we need to learn our lessons to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in future.