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Listening assessment has been a neglected area of research and teaching in the past due to difficulties such as separating input comprehension from output ability, rater variability, and text ambiguity. The goal of this study was to develop a norm-referenced and holistic model summary by surveying Taiwanese English listening and speaking teachers and then comparing that model summary to listening summaries created by non-expert college age native speakers. Eleven Taiwanese college Englishdoi:10.4304/jltr.5.2.313-322 fatcat:l4hqgm7mzrav5bll2lptrkcuhm