A Calibration Method for a Laser Triangulation Scanner Mounted on a Robot Arm for Surface Mapping
This paper presents and discusses a method to calibrate a specially built laser triangulation sensor to scan and map the surface of hydraulic turbine blades and to assign 3D coordinates to a dedicated robot to repair, by welding in layers, the damage on blades eroded by cavitation pitting and/or cracks produced by cyclic loading. Due to the large nonlinearities present in a camera and laser diodes, large range distances become difficult to measure with high precision. Aiming to improve the
... to improve the precision and accuracy of the range measurement sensor based on laser triangulation, a calibration model is proposed that involves the parameters of the camera, lens, laser positions, and sensor position on the robot arm related to the robot base to find the best accuracy in the distance range of the application. The developed sensor is composed of a CMOS camera and two laser diodes that project light lines onto the blade surface and needs image processing to find the 3D coordinates. The distances vary from 250 to 650 mm and the accuracy obtained within the distance range is below 1 mm. The calibration process needs a previous camera calibration and special calibration boards to calculate the correct distance between the laser diodes and the camera. The sensor position fixed on the robot arm is found by moving the robot to selected positions. The experimental procedures show the success of the calibration scheme.