Antibiotic Resistance Trends of Nasal Staphylococcal Isolates from Namibian School Children
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines
Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus strains puts children at risk of developing difficult-to-treat staphylococcal infections. Antibiotic resistance data is limited in Namibia. Our study thus aimed to provide resistance trends for nasal staphylococci isolated from school children in the Mariental District. This is the first report on antibiotic resistance trends of staphylococci from Namibian school children. By Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, 352 Staphylococcus aureus and 81
... d 81 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates from Namibian school children aged 6 -14 years underwent susceptibility testing against seven antibiotics. Ninety-six percent S. aureus and 66.7% CoNS were resistant to ampicillin. Ampicillin resistance was significantly higher in S. aureus than in CoNS (P < 0.0001). Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective against S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was also the most effective drug against CoNS. Cefoxitin/methicillin resistance was seen in 14.5% S. aureus isolates and 8.6% of CoNS. Thirty-one antibiotic resistance patterns were observed, most frequently ampicillin (A), ampicillin-erythromycin (AP-E), and ampicillin-tetracycline (AP-T). Altogether 12.5% isolates (50 S. aureus and four CoNS) were multi-drug resistant. From the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, 43.1% were multi-drug resistant. Methicillin-resistant CoNS were not multi-drug resistant, with the most common resistance pattern being ampicillin-rifampicin-cefoxitin (AP-RP-FOX). In conclusion, multi-drug resistance in our study was relatively low. However, some of the MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant, which is of concern. Learners should be educated on the importance of handwashing and appropriate use of antibiotics to prevent spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the community. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin may effectively be used to treat staphylococcal infections in this study population.