Exploring the Topological Landscape Exhibited by Binary Zinc-triad 1,1-dithiolates
The crystal chemistry of the zinc-triad binary 1,1-dithiolates, that is, compounds of xanthate [−S2COR], dithiophosphate [−S2P(OR)2], and dithiocarbamate [−S2CNR2] ligands, is reviewed. Owing to a wide range of coordination modes that can be adopted by 1,1-dithiolate anions, such as monodentate, chelating, μ2-bridging, μ3-bridging, etc., there exists a rich diversity in supramolecular assemblies for these compounds, including examples of zero-, one-, and two-dimensional architectures. While
... tectures. While there are similarities in structural motifs across the series of 1,1-dithiolate ligands, specific architectures are sometimes found, depending on the metal centre and/or on the 1,1-dithiolate ligand. Further, an influence of steric bulk upon supramolecular aggregation is apparent. Thus, bulky R groups generally preclude the close approach of molecules in order to reduce steric hindrance and therefore, lead to lower dimensional aggregation patterns. The ligating ability of the 1,1-dithiolate ligands also proves crucial in determining the extent of supramolecular aggregation, in particular for dithiocarbamate species where the relatively greater chelating ability of this ligand reduces the Lewis acidity of the zinc-triad element, which thereby reduces its ability to significantly expand its coordination number. Often, the functionalisation of the organic substituents in the 1,1-dithiolate ligands, for example, by incorporating pyridyl groups, can lead to different supramolecular association patterns. Herein, the diverse assemblies of supramolecular architectures are classified and compared. In all, 27 structurally distinct motifs have been identified.