Circadian Rhythm Variations and Nutrition in Children
Journal of Child Science
AbstractCircadian rhythms are the changes in biological processes that occur on a daily basis. Among these processes are reactions involved in metabolic homeostasis. Circadian rhythms are structured by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus via the control of melatonin expression. Circadian rhythms are also controlled by the peripheral clocks, which are intracellular mechanisms composed of the clock genes, whose expression follows a circadian pattern. Circadian
... tern. Circadian rhythms are impacted by signals from the environment called zeitgebers, or time givers, which include light exposure, feeding schedule and composition, sleeping schedule and pattern, temperature, and physical exercise. When the signals from the environment are synchronized with the internal clocks, metabolism is optimized. The term chronodisruption is used to describe the opposite situation. The latest research has demonstrated that life habits coherent with the internal clocks should be adopted, especially during childhood, to prevent metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, a few studies have investigated this link in children, and key information remains unknown.