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includes mixed phase and graupel) explicit scheme and MRF PBL (with no heat/moisture surface fluxes). Klemp and Durran's (1983) upper-radiative boundary condition and a sponge layer were applied in order to prevent gravity waves from being reflected off the model top. The 2-D runs included rotational effects (f~10 -4 s -1 ), therefore terrain-normal flow can develop when a pressure gradient exists in the x-direction. Below are how the parameters were varied: U = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 m s -1doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0588:sooptc>2.0.co;2 fatcat:4tsnok657vcydgdyyeomridmjy