Sensitivity of Orographic Precipitation to Changing Ambient Conditions and Terrain Geometries: An Idealized Modeling Perspective

Brian A. Colle
2004 Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences  
includes mixed phase and graupel) explicit scheme and MRF PBL (with no heat/moisture surface fluxes). Klemp and Durran's (1983) upper-radiative boundary condition and a sponge layer were applied in order to prevent gravity waves from being reflected off the model top. The 2-D runs included rotational effects (f~10 -4 s -1 ), therefore terrain-normal flow can develop when a pressure gradient exists in the x-direction. Below are how the parameters were varied: U = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 m s -1
more » ... , 25, and 30 m s -1 . h m = 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500 m. N m = 0.005 and 0.01 s -1 . L = 50 and 25 km. FL = slightly below surface (sea-level temperature = 270 o K, FLSFC), at 750 mb (FL750), and at 500 mb (FL500).
doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2004)061<0588:sooptc>2.0.co;2 fatcat:4tsnok657vcydgdyyeomridmjy