Summer Weather Simulation for the Semiarid Lower Colorado River Basin: Case Tests
Monthly Weather Review
Accurate summertime weather forecasts, particularly the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), over the semiarid southwest United States pose a difficult challenge for numerical models. Two case studies, one with typical weather on 6 July 1999 and another with unusual flooding on 8 July 1999, using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) nested inside the regional Eta Model, were conducted to test numerical weather prediction capabilities over the lower Colorado River basin. The
... iver basin. The results indicate that the rapid changes in synoptic patterns during these two cases strongly affect the weather and rainfall situation in the basin. The model illustrates that the midlevel sinking over the low elevation of the southwest area of the basin "capped" the development of deep convection in case 1; meanwhile, in case 2, a shear line and convergence over the Las Vegas area valley stimulated intense convective storms in the region. In both cases, the low-level jet (LLJ) stream from the Gulf of California was the major source of atmospheric moisture for the basin. Local topography and thermodynamics also play a significant role in the formation of the weather features. The "thermal low" over the Sonoran Desert is responsible for the LLJ stream, which led to the valley of the Colorado River becoming the warmest and moistest area in the basin. By nesting fine-resolution grids over the Las Vegas area, the representation of local topography in the region was improved in the RAMS model, compared with that in the relatively coarse resolution Eta Model. This appears to be the major reason that the RAMS model could predict intense convective storms over Las Vegas, while the operational Eta forecast could not.