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In Italy most dairy cows produce milk for cheese manufacture and are farmed in intensive systems, with free stall barns, milking parlor or robotic milking, total mixed ration and no (or limited) access to pasture. The main objective for farmers is to maximize farm income and minimize farm costs by adopting strategies and 'best practices' in the early life of heifers. Monitoring body weight (BW) and fertility of young stock is fundamental to ensure good performances in future dairy cows and todoi:10.3390/agriculture11020159 fatcat:tavaaa6x3rau5dhla54iszwtye