Generation of Retinal Ganglion Cells With Functional Axons From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
PURPOSE. We previously generated self-induced retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with functional axons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). We investigated whether selfinduced RGCs from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) are realized by the similar induction protocol. METHODS. Retinal ganglion cells were induced using a protocol in which floating embryoid bodies (EBs) were differentiated into a retinal cell lineage in three-dimensional
... e and subsequently attached to two-dimensional culture dishes with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supplementation. RESULTS. Retinal ganglion cells developed in an attached clump of cells originating from the optic vesicle, and most axons grew from RGC cell bodies at the margins of the clump. The differentiation of RGCs was confirmed by the expression of specific markers, including Brn3a and Math5. The axons contained neurofilament subtypes and tau, and manifested axonal transport and sodium-dependent action potentials. The RGCs derived from mESCs and miPSCs generally showed similar profiles, including RNA and protein expression levels and function. CONCLUSIONS. Retinal ganglion cells generated from mESCs and miPSCs, especially the latter, may contribute to research associated with RGCs and to in vitro analyses of genetically modified mice.