Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Suspended Sediments in the Negro River, Amazon Basin, from In Situ and Sentinel-2 Remote Sensing Data
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Monitoring suspended sediments through remote sensing data in black-water rivers is a challenge. Herein, remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from in situ measurements and Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) images were used to estimate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the largest black-water river of the Amazon basin. The Negro River exhibits extremely low Rrs values (< 0.005 sr−1 at visible and near-infrared bands) due to the elevated absorption of coloured dissolved organic
... tter (aCDOM at 440 nm > 7 m−1) caused by the high amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC > 7 mg L−1) and low SSC (< 5 mg L−1). Interannual variability of Rrs is primarily controlled by the input of suspended sediments from the Branco River, which is a clear water river that governs the changes in the apparent optical properties of the Negro River, even at distances that are greater than 90 km from its mouth. Better results were obtained using the Sentinel-2 MSI Red band (Band 4 at 665 nm) in order to estimate the SSC, with an R2 value greater than 0.85 and an error less than 20% in the adjusted models. The magnitudes of water reflectance in the Sentinel-2 MSI Red band were consistent with in situ Rrs measurements, indicating the large spatial variability of the lower SSC values (0 to 15 mg L−1) in a complex anabranching reach of the Negro River. The in situ and satellite data analysed in this study indicates sedimentation processes in the lower Negro River near the Amazon River. The results suggest that the radiometric characteristics of sensors, like sentinel-2 MSI, are suitable for monitoring the suspended sediment concentration in large tropical black-water rivers.