Chemical Profile and Biological Potential of Non-Polar Fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)
The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract). The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%). Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (-)-loliolide,
... s (-)-loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid), terpene derivatives, OPEN ACCESS Molecules 2011, 16 7106 fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol), lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide), ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC 50 = 19.1 μg.mL −1 and trypomastigote IC 50 = 76.2 μg.mL −1 ). The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg) by TLC-bioautography.