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The subject of agency in Africa's international relations (IR) is often shrouded in generalised accounts of Africa as a supplicant actor. Utilising examples from a variety of African states, this article makes the argument that African actors are able to exert assertive agency in their various encounters with external partners although the level of agency they are able to exert is determined by a variety of factors including; the type of governmental regime in place, possession and control ofdoi:10.1080/23311886.2018.1487257 fatcat:vzwjqyb6grdiffzol222uw6zmq