1. Further Observations on Empoasca Mali; 2. Notes on Papaipema Nitela and P. Cataphracta

F. L. Washburn
1910 Journal of Economic Entomology  
FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON EMPOASCA MALI In a paper read before the Association last year the following statements were made concerning this insect, as the result of two years' work: (a) Fall laid eggs were not found on any herbaceous plant . . (b) The insect winters only in the egg stage. (c) Oviposition in summer ,vas found to occur on the petiole of apple and clover, with the .probability of its occurring on other herbaceous plants. (d) List of iood plants was given. (e) Five nymphal stages
more » ... nymphal stages were reported, covering a period of about twenty-two days. (f) Adults may live fourteen days or over; (1907 experiments indicate that they may live thirty days or more). (g) The location and appearance of the winter egg blister, and the contained egg was discussed and illustrated.· (k) Certain observations on remedial measures were given. This work was done to a very large extent either personally or under the direction of Doctor Franklin, and the work this season has been continued under his supervision. The following data are either new, or confirm the findings of the two previous years. This species deposits its winter eggs only on perennials, and of perennials, as far as can be determined, only on the apple. One 'young nymph was found on the willow, and one on plum. In each case these trees were only :fifty yards from apple trees, and the nymphs may have been blown to the former trees or carried on larger insects or on the feet of birds. It seems desirable, for the sake of convenience in following the records bearing upon the life history of this insect, to arrange our findings in chronological order, therefore: June 4th to 10th. At the time when nymphs were found on the apple nymphs were also gathered from the elm, white oak, red oak, gooseberry, black birch, white birch, linden, and reared to adult condition. 'l'hese were all foun,d to be species other than E. mali. Cur-.rant bushes, bOA-elder, mountain ash, dogwood and other perennials were examined carefully during the :first two weeks in June, but no nymphs or adults of any species were found. One nymph was found on willow June 11th, and two on plum June 7th. The one on willow and one of those on the plum were reared and proved to be E. mali. These have been referred to above, and their occurrence on these trees possibly accounted for. by guest on
doi:10.1093/jee/3.2.162 fatcat:an5q2qik4vey5ek4ojg3eu5gwu