Influence of Climate Changes on the State of Water Resources in Poland and Their Usage

Katarzyna Kubiak-Wójcicka, Sylwia Machula
2020 Geosciences  
The study aims to estimate the amount of available renewable water resources in Poland in the years 1999–2018 and the extent of their use by various sectors of the national economy at the national and regional levels. In the study period, the selected meteorological elements were found to have changed, resulting in a decrease in the flows of the two largest rivers in Poland: the Vistula and the Oder. The outflow of the Vistula and Odra basins determines the size of Poland's water resources.
more » ... ater resources. Poland is classified as a country of low water resources, as evidenced by the per capita amount of surface water, which in the years 1999–2018 was 1566 m3/capita. Water consumption to meet the needs of the economy and the population was stable, and averaged 283 m3/capita in this period. The analysis of water consumption by region showed that the areas with the lowest annual precipitation consume significant amounts of water for economic purposes, which may limit or destabilise socio-economic development in the region in future. Based on the difference between the amount of precipitation and water losses in the form of evaporation and water abstraction for economic purposes, maps were drawn up showing the deficit of surface water in a dry year. During periods of surface water scarcity, groundwater uptake increases. An area particularly exposed to water scarcity is central Poland.
doi:10.3390/geosciences10080312 fatcat:lrod7dndrncepdzkfgkwk2hpfm