Low-grade chronic inflammation is attenuated by exercise in obese adults through down-regulation of ASC gene: a pilot study
Background Several factors are related to lifestyle behaviors, like physical inactivity and unbalanced diets, which increase the risk of developing obesity and thus represent an important health problem worldwide. Obesity is characterized by low-grade chronic inflammation and an excess of adipose tissue. The ASC protein is part of the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic multiprotein complex that is associated with inflammation and metabolic alterations. Purpose To evaluate the effect of a
... fect of a moderate-intensity structured exercise intervention on ASC gene expression and inflammatory markers in obese adults. Methods Thirty-seven obese individuals aged 25 to 50 years were randomized to the diet-exercise group or diet-group. The participants underwent a 4-month follow-up. Electrical bioimpedance was used for body composition analysis. Biochemical data were analyzed by dry chemistry and insulin levels by ELISA. Gene expression from peripheral blood was performed using real-time PCR. Dietary data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed using the Nutritionist Pro™ software. Quantification of cytokines was conducted using Bio-Plex Pro™ Human cytokine. The Astrand-Ryhming test was used to estimate the maximum oxygen volume and design the moderate-intensity structured exercise program. Results After the intervention, both study groups significantly improved body composition (decrease weight, fat mass, waist circumference and abdominal obesity, p < 0.05). Besides, the diet-exercise group significantly decreased ASC mRNA expression, MCP-1, and MIP-1β inflammatory cytokines compared to the diet-group (p < 0.05). While in the diet- group, MCP-1 and IL-8 exhibited significantly decreased levels (p < 0.05). In the diet-exercise group, a positive correlation between the atherogenic index and waist circumference was found (r = 0.822, p = 0.011), and a negative correlation was observed between the delta of ASC mRNA expression and IL-10 levels at the end of the intervention (r=-0.627, p = 0.019). Conclusion Low-grade chronic inflammation was attenuated through individualized exercise prescription and our findings highlight the role of the ASC gene in the inflammation of obese adults.