Editorial: Cooperative Adaptation and Evolution in Plant-Microbe Systems

Tatiana Matveeva, Nikolai Provorov, Jari P. T. Valkonen
2018 Frontiers in Plant Science  
Editorial on the Research Topic Cooperative Adaptation and Evolution in Plant-Microbe Systems Evolutionarily, plant-microbe interactions range from beneficial symbioses to the molecular arms race between pathogens and the immune systems of plants. Expanding our knowledge on ecological and evolutionary genetics of plant-microbe interactions is of high importance. Plants coevolve symbiotically with enormously diverse microbial communities, which has been pivotal since colonization of land by
more » ... ion of land by plants. The fungal and bacterial associates provide plants with important nutritional, protective and growth regulatory functions. The well-studied mutualists (legume N 2 -fixing nodules, arbuscular mycorrhizae) and antagonists (biotrophic and necrotrophic) represent only a minority of symbioses between plants and associated microbial communities. The endophytic and epiphytic microbiomes exceed their hosts greatly in terms of genetic information potentially useful for extending the plant ecological amplitude and improving crop production. A major breakthrough in conceptualizing the role of plant-microbe interactions in evolution has become possible largely owing to the new research methods. Next generation sequencing (NGS) opens up new prospects for studies in inter-species interactions. On the one hand, analysis of the accumulating data makes it possible to approach macroevolution from a new angle. The study presented by Wang et al. in this issue of Frontiers in Plant Science lays ground for discussions about evolution of stramenopiles and more complex scenarios for the evolution of oomycetes, including the supposed ancestral endosymbioses or independent horizontal gene transfer events involving red and green algae, oomycetes and other stramenopiles. NGS provides opportunities for deeper study of genomes and transcriptomes of species, new gene combinations and differentially expressed genes during the symbiotic interactions. For instance, Phomopsis liquidambari studied by Zhou et al. is established in endophytic and saprophytic systems with rice (Oryza sativa L.). Most genes for amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and secondary metabolism are up-regulated in endophytic fungi. Most pathways of xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism are upregulated in saprophytic systems, demonstrating the genetic regulation of adaptation to various ecological niches. Symbiotic relationships contribute not only to changes in the pattern of gene expression, but also to the exchange of genes between symbionts. NGS helps to find footprints of such exchanges. Five different types of T-DNA of Rhizobium rhizogenes (formerly Agrobacterium rhizogenes) were identifed in Nicotiana during the analysis of genome sequence data, supplementing former information about T-DNA in Nicotiana and Linaria species with new types of T-DNA. Homologues
doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.01090 pmid:30154804 fatcat:bmrv7hh7q5dpze2fmjy4plpv24