Fast and efficient partial code reordering
Proceedings of the 2006 international symposium on Memory management - ISMM '06
Poor instruction cache locality can degrade performance on modern architectures. For example, our simulation results show that eliminating all instruction cache misses improves performance by as much as 16% for a modestly sized instruction cache. In this paper, we show how to take advantage of dynamic code generation in a Java Virtual Machine (VM) to improve instruction locality at run-time. We develop a dynamic code reordering (DCR) system; a low overhead, online approach for improving
... r improving instruction locality. DCR has three optimizations: (1) Interprocedural method separation; (2) Intraprocedural code splitting; and (3) Code padding. DCR uses the dynamic call graph and an edge profile that most VMs already collect to separate hot/cold methods and hot/cold code within a method. It also puts padding between methods to minimize conflict misses between frequent caller/callee pairs. It incrementally performs these optimizations only when the VM is optimizing a method at a higher level. We implement DCR in Jikes RVM and show its overhead is negligible. Extensive simulation and run-time experiments show that a simple code space improves average performance on a Pentium 4 by around 6% on SPEC and DaCapo Java benchmarks. These programs however have very small instruction cache footprints that limit opportunities for DCR to improve performance. Consequently, DCR optimizations on average show little effect, sometimes degrading performance and occasionally improving performance by up to 5%. Our work shows that the VM has the potential to dynamically improve instruction locality incrementally by simply piggybacking on hotspot recompilation.