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In America at the turn of the 20 th century, the absence of central educative authority meant that education was shaped by numerous divergent forces. Little to no federal and state control of schools meant widespread institutional fragmentation. College admissions practices, for example, were not uniform, as institutions varied widely in their judgment of the value of high school curriculum, certificates (i.e., high school diplomas) and type of college entrance examinations. Secondary educationdoi:10.14507/er.v0.2378 fatcat:65nmuxazcrcd5iy2tiuuydrzxu