Aves de caza. Estudio tafonómico y zooarqueológico de los restos avianos de los niveles musterienses de Pié Lombard (Alpes-Maritimes, Francia)

A.J. Romero, J. C. Diez, J.P. Brugal
2018 Munibe Antropologia-Arkeologia  
El yacimiento musteriense de Pié Lombard (Alpes-Maritimes, Francia) está localizado en un entorno montañoso de medio rango y posee un conjunto óseo rico y diversificado en el cual los restos de aves son abundantes. Su estudio tafonómico y zooarqueológico brinda cuestiones importantes sobre la explotación de aves por parte de rapaces, carnívoros y neandertales, y añade otro yacimiento en el cual se lleva a cabo la explotación de pequeñas presas en Europa Occidental. LABURPENA Pié Lombard-eko
more » ... Pié Lombard-eko (Itsas Alpeak, Frantzia) aztarnategi mousteriarra maila ertaineko ingurune menditsuan dago, eta hezur-multzo aberatsa eta dibertsifikatua du. Oso ugariak dira hegaztien hondakinak. Azterketa tafonomikoak eta zooarkeologikoak harrapariek, karniboroek eta neandertalek hegaztiekin lotuta egindako ustiapenari buruzko gai esanguratsuak azaleratu ditu. Gainera, mendebaldeko Europan harrapakin txikien ustiapena egin deneko beste aztarnategi bat azaldu da. ABSTRACT Traditionally small fast game exploitation is characteristic of the end of Upper Palaeolithic or modern humans. Nevertheless, several authors demonstrated recently small fast game exploitation by fossil hominins able to capture, process and consume small animals for different purposes, despite numerous methodological and technical problems. In this work, we provide results of a taphonomical and zooarchaeological study on all bird bones from the Middle Palaeolithic levels of Pié Lombard using various analytical tools. The Mousterian site of Pié Lombard is a narrow rock shelter located in a middle-range mountainous environment near Tourrettes-sur-Loup (Alpes-Maritimes, France). The Middle Palaeolithic bird bone assemblage retained 18 taxa, all adults. The most represented taxa are choughs and pigeons that represent rocky species, characteristic of mild-temperate climate. The third most common specie is the partridge, although to a lesser extent. Long bones are predominant and anatomical representations are different between the frequent species. Various taphonomical alterations are visible on bird remains, including human modifications (cut marks -incisions and scraping marks-and burnt bones), other non-human predator activities (usually tooth marks and digestion processes) and some diagenetic alterations (especially concretion, corrosion and root marks). The majority of the bones are characterized by curved outline, mixed angles and jagged textures. The bird remains exhibit significant breakages due to various consumption processes (humans, raptors and small carnivores) completed by natural burial process. The birds of prey (probably nocturnal raptors) transported their prey (usually choughs) to the rock shelter where they were consumed and regurgitated. Secondly, small and medium-sized carnivores (small felids like lynx or wild cat had a relevant role) predate occasionally on birds. Neanderthals occupations were occasional, where they exploited herbivores but are also in to some extent at the source of bird accumulation. The humans captured almost exclusively pigeons and partridges, and some choughs. Without excluding a possible use of feathers, the Neanderthal groups of Pié Lombard acquired birds for their meat. Thus, Pié Lombard is a new Middle Paleolithic site where small game exploitation was a real part of the diet. The site can be is added to our recent knowledge, as another sites in Western Europe, demonstrating the ability of Neanderthal to hunt and consume birds as a continuous economic activity in space and time.
doi:10.21630/maa.2017.68.14 fatcat:qagg6phz7vgfjjlwxbgif44lza