Sports participation and muscle mass affect sex-related differences in bone mineral density between male and female adolescents: A longitudinal study

Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Han Kemper, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, André Oliveira Werneck, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Yuri da Silva Faustino-da-Silva, Isabella Exupério, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
2019 São Paulo Medical Journal  
INTRODUCTION Bone health has become a concern in modern society due to the economic burden and impairment in quality of life caused by osteoporosis. 1 Osteoporotic fractures increase both healthcare costs and the risk of early mortality. 2-4 Taking into account the epidemiology of osteoporosis, women exhibit greater risk of developing osteoporosis than do men. This greater risk for the female sex is strongly determined by specific events that occur during adolescence. 5 The current literature
more » ... urrent literature shows how childhood and adolescence are complex phases that are critical periods for the development of bone mineral density (BMD) accrual. There is increasing acceptance of the hypothesis that osteoporosis may be a pediatric metabolic disease, with manifestations during adulthood. 6 Therefore, the peak bone mass reached during this period is a determinant of BMD observed during adulthood, and this constitutes a relevant determinant of the risk of osteoporosis in adulthood. 7 Among the variables capable of affecting bone health, sports participation plays an important role in the process of boosting bone gains during childhood and adolescence. 8 Thus, it is important to consider sports and resistance training as relevant tools for improving bone mineral density (BMD) 8-9 and joint stability, with consequently stronger bones. 11 Another relevant fact is that the rate of sports participation may differ between boys and girls, such that it is higher among males. 9,10-13 Moreover, during adolescence, there are several correlates affecting sex-related differences in gains of bone mineral content among athletes and non-athletes, such as maturation, muscle mass and dietary factors. 14,15
doi:10.1590/1516-3180.2018.031040119 fatcat:ewkrx6apnbglrd63o7ahvetkzu