Factors Limiting Li+Charge Transfer Kinetics in Li-Ion Batteries
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Understanding the factors limiting Li + charge transfer kinetics in Li-ion batteries is essential in improving the rate performance, especially at lower temperatures. The Li + charge transfer process involved in the lithium intercalation of graphite anode includes the step of de-solvation of the solvated Li + in the liquid electrolyte and the step of transport of Li + in the preformed solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on electrodes until the Li + accepts an electron at the electrode and
... lectrode and becomes a Li in the electrode. Whether the de-solvation process or the Li + transport through the SEI is a limiting step depends on the nature of the interphases at the electrode and electrolyte interfaces. Several examples involving the electrode materials such as graphite, lithium titanate (LTO), lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) and solid Li + conductor such as lithium lanthanum titanate or Li-Al-Ti-phosphate are reviewed and discussed to clarify the conditions at which either the de-solvation or the transport of Li + in SEI is dominating and how the electrolyte components affect the activation energy of Li + charge transfer kinetics. How the electrolyte additives impact the Li + charge transfer kinetics at both the anode and the cathode has been examined at the same time in 3-electrode full cells. The resulting impact on Li + charge transfer resistance, R ct , and activation energy, E a , at both electrodes are reported and discussed.