Can public campaigns effectively change psychological determinants of safer sex? An evaluation of three Dutch campaigns

M. C. Yzer
2000 Health Education Research  
campaigns have been increasingly based on various models of health behavior [cf. (Fisher and Fisher, 1992)]. In the context of safer sex campaigns, This study evaluated the 1994, 1995 and 1996 Dutch safer sex campaigns as to their effect-Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) is one of the most widely used models. The iveness in terms of improved attitudes, perceived social norms, self-efficacy and intentions regardmodel postulates that the intention to engage in safer sex is a
more » ... in safer sex is a direct predictor of actual safer sex ing safer sex. The hypotheses were tested that variables become more positive when campaigns behavior in the future. In turn, the intention is assumed to be based upon attitudes, social norms are conducted and less positive when campaigns are discontinued. A comprehensive design, and self-efficacy with respect to safer sex. Attitudes pertain to the evaluation of safer sex including a baseline-post-test/post-test-only group design and a longitudinal or multiple in terms of good versus bad, social norms concern estimates of the extent to which the assessment group design, was employed to exclude testing effects, history effects, cultural reference group approves of safer sex and selfefficacy pertains to perceptions of the ability to changes and sample differences as alternative explanations. The results show that despite high actually carry out the behavior. Whereas Ajzen originally labeled the latter variable as personal baseline levels, the campaigns positively affected all variables. Importantly, levels of all variables control, this variable is highly similar to Bandura's (Bandura, 1994) concept of self-efficacy. Because decreased when no campaign was conducted. It is concluded that campaigns are needed to self-efficacy has become a more widely used label, in particular in the context of health-related maintain high levels of determinants of safer sex and that future campaign goals should be behavior, in this paper we prefer to use this term rather than personal control. Numerous studies formulated in terms of stabilization instead of growth. have examined the ability of the TPB to predict safer sex intentions and behaviors [e.g. (Basen-
doi:10.1093/her/15.3.339 pmid:10977381 fatcat:xwtlwffltfempe3yghtdgxuomq